Mesothelioma is often a cancer that attacks the mesothelium, the tissue that lines various organs in the body. There are four forms of mesothelioma cancer, namely:
Pleural mesothelioma (pleural mesothelioma), which is a cancer that attacks the lining of the mesothelium (pleura). This type is easily the most common type.
Mesothelioma peritoneum (peritoneal mesothelioma), namely mesothelioma in the lining of the abdominal cavity (peritoneum).
Mesothelioma pericardium (pericardial mesothelioma), that’s mesothelioma which attacks the protective layer from the heart organ.
Testicular mesothelioma, which can be a mesothelioma that attacks the protective layer of testicles or testicles.
There is a benign tumor inside chest called the solitary fibrous tumor that is sometimes called benign mesothelioma. This condition is just not included in mesothelioma which is to be discussed.
Causes of Mesothelioma
The cause of mesothelioma is just not certain. However, mesothelioma is obviously related to asbestos exposure or asbestos. Asbestos is a mineral that is certainly trusted as being a building construction material, including roofs, due to the heat resistance and fire resistance. The use of asbestos has become officially banned since 1999.
When asbestos is destroyed, either during the process of mining or renovating a building, asbestos will produce fiber or fine dust. Asbestos fine fiber is quite simple to breathe, then enters and settles in body organs, especially the lungs. Swallowed asbestos fibers can also undergo the lymphatic system, settle, and infect cells in the lining from the abdominal cavity (peritoneum).
Exposure to asbestos may also affect the function from the reproductive organs along with the heart. However, the spread process is just not yet known because it is incredibly rare.
In general, there are numerous factors that improve the chance of mesothelioma, namely:
Work environments that are prone to asbestos exposure, like mineral mines, construction sites, the automotive industry, power plants, the textile industry and steel mills.
Residing in old buildings or environments in which the land contains asbestos.
Have family members who work in environments that are susceptible to asbestos exposure. Asbestos might be coupled to the skin and clothing, to ensure that asbestos might be carried into other homes or environments.
Having previous mesothelioma or genetic disorders that boost the risk of cancer.
Besides asbestos, there are numerous additional circumstances that may improve the probability of mesothelioma, although it is rare. Among these are exposure to erionite minerals, experience of radiation from thorium dioxide chemicals utilized in X-ray photo examinations before the 1950s, and infection with simian viruses (SV40).
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Symptoms of Mesothelioma
Symptoms of mesothelioma develop gradually in most cases take 20-30 years until symptoms appear. Patients may well not feel any symptoms when mesothelioma are at an early stage. But over time, cancer cells will establish and suppress nerves or another organs, causing symptoms.
Symptoms of mesothelioma differ depending on the location with the presence of cancer cells. In pulmonary mesothelioma, symptoms that will appear are highlighted below:
Fever together with sweat, especially at night.
Cough associated with unbearable pain.
Shortness of breath on account of accumulation of fluid within the lungs, precisely in the pleural cavity, which is the area between the two pleural layers that line the lungs.
Weight loss without obvious reasons.
Swelling and changes in shape with the fingertips (clubbing).
Lumps appear on the tissue beneath the surface from the skin within the chest area.
Meanwhile, peritoneal mesothelioma gets the following symptoms:
Loss of appetite.
The weight dropped dramatically.
Pain inside the abdomen.
Swelling in the abdominal area.
A lump within the abdomen appears.
Disorders of bowel movements and urination.
Mesothelioma pericardium and testis are types of mesothelioma which are rare. Mesothelioma pericardium usually causes symptoms like chest pain and respiratory disorders, while testicular mesothelioma is seen as a swelling or even the appearance of lumps in the testicular area
Symptoms of mesothelioma are certainly not specific and might be due to other difficulties. Therefore, immediately see a doctor if you believe the symptoms above, particularly if you have previous experience of asbestos.
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The doctor will suspect an individual has mesothelioma, if there are symptoms, that are strengthened by the physical examination. But to be sure, an imaging test is required. Among others are:
X-rays, to detect abnormalities, such as thickening in the lung layer, fluid within the pleural cavity, or modifications in lung shape.
CT scan, to look at tummy and stomach area, and detect indications of cancer, determine the place of the cancer, and check whether the cancer has spread with organs.
PET (Positron Emission Tomography). Check using se life containing radioactive atoms which might be injected in to the body to get a detailed picture in the tissue suspected of experiencing cancer cells.
MRI, to get a more detailed picture from the tissue to look for the location from the tumor.
In addition, a doctor could also suggest a follow-up examination for example
Examination of fluid samples. If the person experiences fluid buildup inside the body in connection with mesothelioma, your physician is going to take a liquid sample employing a needle inserted with the skin in to the area the place that the liquid is situated. Furthermore, the fluid will probably be analyzed within the laboratory to detect a good cancer cells. There are several types of fluid and tissue sample tests, namely:
Thoracentesis, taking fluid samples in the area of the pleural cavity.
Paracentesis, taking fluid inside the abdominal cavity.
Pericardiocentesis, taking fluid inside the layer (membrane) across the heart.
Biopsy, that’s the means of removing tissue samples from certain parts of the body to be analyzed within the laboratory. There are several varieties of biopsy examinations, namely:
Needle biopsy. This kind of biopsy utilizes a long needle inserted over the skin into the chest area or abdominal cavity to take tissue samples.
Thoracoscopy, laparoscopy, and mediastinoscopy. This form of biopsy uses an elastic hose using a camera along with a special surgical device that is inserted through more than one small incisions to take tissue samples. The sort of process of removing samples generally depends upon the location of the body undergoing the examination, namely:
Thoracoscopy, to analyze the area relating to the lung and the chest wall.
Laparoscopy, to check the inside from the abdominal organs.
Mediastinoscopy, to examine the spot throughout the heart.
Biopsy through surgery. For some conditions, a doctor will do an invasive procedure to look at larger tissue samples to discover the diagnosis. Sometimes, the doctor may also do the procedure to eliminate the complete tumor if possible. There are two types of biopsy procedures through surgery, namely:
Thoracotomy, which is really a form of biopsy performed through open surgery on tummy.
Laparotomy, which is often a form of biopsy performed through open surgery inside abdomen.
Bronchoscopic biopsy. Procedure for removing tissue samples by using a long, thin elastic tube that’s inserted with the throat to examine the respiratory tract.
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Based on the degree of spread, mesothelioma is divided into four stages. The division of this stage allows the doctor to distinguish the introduction of cancer cells inside the body and figure out the procedure steps to become taken. The four stages of mesothelioma, namely:
Stage 1: Tumors continue to be local, ie only in a single division of the body and mesothelioma cells have not spread with other tissues or organs. Surgery is performed to take out the tumor. The life expectancy of patients informed they have stage 1 mesothelioma is 21 months or even more.
Stage 2: Larger tumor size and mesothelioma cells commence to spread to nearby areas. Surgery to get rid of the tumor can nonetheless be done, although the results are not very effective. Life expectancy for patients with stage 2 mesothelioma is 19 months or less.
Stage 3: Mesothelioma cells have spread to surrounding organs. Surgery is no more effective because some cancer cells have spread to other areas. The life expectancy of stage 3 mesothelioma patients is around 16 months.
Stage 4: Mesothelioma cells have spread to varied areas throughout the body from the bloodstream. Treatment which is still within the research stage will probably be provided to patients to supply the patient’s life chances. The life expectancy of patients with end-stage mesothelioma is extremely low, which can be around 1 year.
Mesothelioma is one kind of cancer which is rare and contains not been cured as yet. Treatment is implemented to control or decrease the symptoms experienced and extend the person’s life chances. Treatment steps are often determined determined by several factors, namely:
Age and all around health condition in the patient.
Type and location of mesothelioma.
Stadium or spread of cancer cells inside the body.
Size of mesothelioma
Based for the considerations above, there are several treatment steps that could be recommended by doctors, namely:
Chemotherapy, therapeutic treatment with anticancer drugs to destroy or inhibit the increase of cancer cells that cannot be removed through surgery. Chemotherapy might be done before or after surgery to shrink the tumor, facilitate the operation of detaching the tumor, and decrease the chance of cancer reappearing.
Radiation therapy (radiotherapy), therapeutic treatment with X-rays and proton rays centered on certain areas of the body. Radiotherapy is often done as soon as the patient has undergone a procedure procedure, to remove the remaining cancer cells. Treatment care is also done to reduce advanced cancer symptoms when surgery is just not possible.
Operation. Surgery is done when mesothelioma is still in its early stages. There are several selections of actions that the doctor usually takes during surgery. Among others are:
Removal of as much cancer cells as you can in the patient’s body. This action can hold treatments of patients with radiotherapy to cut back pain and inhibit cancer growth.
Suction of fluid on account of fluid buildup within the chest area that may obstruct breathing. This is done by inserting a catheter tube into stomach to suck in the liquid. Doctors may also inject drugs to glue the pleural cavity to ensure that the liquid cannot accumulate again. This action is termed pleurodesis
Removal of tissue around the abdominal cavity, ribs, or lung suffering from cancer cells.
Removal of affected lung organs and surrounding tissues. This procedure is normally then radiotherapy.
Multimodality therapy. This therapy is a combination of three or maybe more treatment steps, like surgery, postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy to improve the effectiveness of treatment.
Research phase. The doctor will inform the sufferer about the procedure methods which can be still inside the research stage. However, the potential of someone to recoup isn’t yet known with certainty, therefore it needs to be carefully considered. On the other hand, this technique of treatment can boost the possibility of doctors to learn more about treatments of mesothelioma. There are several methods of treatment which can be still inside the research stage that might be carried out by patients, namely:
Biological therapy – using the person’s defense mechanisms to battle cancer, otherwise known as immunotherapy.
Gene therapy – changes the genes found in cancer cells to prevent this condition.
Target therapy – use drugs to fight abnormalities that appear in cancer cells.
Supporting treatment. This treatment might help sufferers in managing the signs and signs and symptoms of mesothelioma, like:
Respiratory training, to regulate breathing when the individual experiences signs and symptoms of difficulty breathing.
Body relaxation exercises, to reduce tension in the respiratory muscles, so that patients can breathe easier.
Prevention of Mesothelioma
The main preventive action of mesothelioma is to avoid contact with everything that contains asbestos. If you work in a high-risk environment encountered with asbestos, then stick to the safety regulations set from the company. Among others are:
Use personal protective equipment during a work area which is prone to experience of asbestos.
Dispose in the remaining asbestos material in the safe home rather than endanger the environment.
Do not buying the clothes and shoes used during work
In addition, there are several things that could be carried out to reduce the probability of mesothelioma, namely:
Perform routine health checks to detect symptoms or signs and symptoms of asbestos-related diseases.
Quit smoking. Cigarettes do not directly cause mesothelioma, but cigarettes certainly are a trigger factor and will increase the chance of various varieties of cancer, including mesothelioma.
Learn and follow instructions for handling safe asbestos inside the surrounding environment. Do not move material containing asbestos carelessly.